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WHAT IS THE SPECTROMETER?

Light consists of electromagnetic waves when they interact with matter scatter absorbed, reflected or disseminated in it. Studying the interaction of light with matter, we can get information about the structure of matter and generally the quality and quantity. For more accurate analysis of the material developed appropriate optical systems, spectrometers (or absorption spectroscopy), they can do automatically, quickly and reliably analyze the spectrum of light as interact with matter. By measuring the absorption of a beam specific wavelength from a sample and constructing the concentration-curve, we can draw useful conclusions about the nature, structure and concentration of a substance in the sample.

Basic parts

The spectrometers are generally from a light source (usually some type of incandescent lamp), various mirrors direct the beam, a monochromatora in which we choose the wavelength that we want a cell with the sample and a detector.

Species

The absorption spectrometers are divided into spectrographs single beam and dual beam. The difference is that the dual-beam radiation divide the source into two beams. One of them passes through the sample to be measured and the other from a standard sample (or zero sample). A device sends alternately in the two sets of light and that the detector. In this way we can measure more accurately the concentration of extending the range of measurement of density and non-linear regions of absorption and to bypass the errors due to electronic noise and manufacturing defects. The measurement is made by subtracting the two measurements gives the detector digital or analog, filtering the DC voltage and measuring the amplitude of the ac voltage we get.

Mode

For the absorption of monochromatic radiation in homogeneous medium there are two laws, the law of Lambert, which gives the final intensity of light after passing the sample (versus the thickness of the sample), and the law of Beer, which gives the intensity of light concentration of the solution. To calculate the absorption of radiation by solutions using a combination of two laws named Law Lampert-Beer:

where

I: intensity of light in the middle or at the average

I0: the light intensity before the medium

e: the depreciation rate color component solution (depending on the wavelength of incident radiation)

c: the concentration

l: the length traveled by light in the solution.

Basis sets the permeability and absorption, which is the basis of quantitative analysis.

Graph-absorbing assembly is normally linear for most of the solutions if done correctly the separation of substances and the peaks of the spectrum apart enough to be distinguishable. Non-linear regions of the curve due mainly to the components of the device, so I used standard solutions such as cobalt chloride and others, to calibrate the device. The parasite radiation% S calculated experimentally by the equation:

where

A: the experimental value of absorption for the higher measured concentration and

A0: the price of absorption if extrapolate the hypothetical straight line must be absorbed in the merger.

We can also estimate the photometric error E:

Monitoring Performance - Calibration

The controls generally do fotofasmatofotometra in the quantitative analysis, photometric photometric accuracy and repeatability.

In the quantitative analysis used standard solutions of known concentration and curve-absorption spectrum. We identify the device through the top of the greater absorption and determine the wavelength and absorption. If the curve is not straight use solutions with lower concentration. Finally check the concentration of an unknown solution.

To check the photometric repeatability use glass or metal filters with non-localized absorption, there are several consecutive measurements and calculate standard deviation s:

where

s2: the dispersion of experimental values

N: the number of experimental values

T: the experimental values of permeability, the average experimental values of permeability

The photometric accuracy is measured as the photometric repeatability. Made ten consecutive measurements with standard samples which have been calibrated to laboratory standards, and calculated the accuracy as the difference between the average of the measurements and the actual value of permeability given by the standard laboratory

Light consists of electromagnetic waves when they interact with matter scatter absorbed, reflected or disseminated in it. Studying the interaction of light with matter, we can get information about the structure of matter and generally the quality and quantity. For more accurate analysis of the material developed appropriate optical systems, spectrometers (or absorption spectroscopy), they can do automatically, quickly and reliably analyze the spectrum of light as interact with matter. By measuring the absorption of a beam specific wavelength from a sample and constructing the concentration-curve, we can draw useful conclusions about the nature, structure and concentration of a substance in the sample.

Basic parts

The spectrometers are generally from a light source (usually some type of incandescent lamp), various mirrors direct the beam, a monochromatora in which we choose the wavelength that we want a cell with the sample and a detector.

Species

The absorption spectrometers are divided into spectrographs single beam and dual beam. The difference is that the dual-beam radiation divide the source into two beams. One of them passes through the sample to be measured and the other from a standard sample (or zero sample). A device sends alternately in the two sets of light and that the detector. In this way we can measure more accurately the concentration of extending the range of measurement of density and non-linear regions of absorption and to bypass the errors due to electronic noise and manufacturing defects. The measurement is made by subtracting the two measurements gives the detector digital or analog, filtering the DC voltage and measuring the amplitude of the ac voltage we get.

Mode

For the absorption of monochromatic radiation in homogeneous medium there are two laws, the law of Lambert, which gives the final intensity of light after passing the sample (versus the thickness of the sample), and the law of Beer, which gives the intensity of light concentration of the solution. To calculate the absorption of radiation by solutions using a combination of two laws named Law Lampert-Beer:

where

I: intensity of light in the middle or at the average

I0: the light intensity before the medium

e: the depreciation rate color component solution (depending on the wavelength of incident radiation)

c: the concentration

l: the length traveled by light in the solution.

Basis sets the permeability and absorption, which is the basis of quantitative analysis.

Graph-absorbing assembly is normally linear for most of the solutions if done correctly the separation of substances and the peaks of the spectrum apart enough to be distinguishable. Non-linear regions of the curve due mainly to the components of the device, so I used standard solutions such as cobalt chloride and others, to calibrate the device. The parasite radiation% S calculated experimentally by the equation:

where

A: the experimental value of absorption for the higher measured concentration and

A0: the price of absorption if extrapolate the hypothetical straight line must be absorbed in the merger.

We can also estimate the photometric error E:

Monitoring Performance - Calibration

The controls generally do fotofasmatofotometra in the quantitative analysis, photometric photometric accuracy and repeatability.

In the quantitative analysis used standard solutions of known concentration and curve-absorption spectrum. We identify the device through the top of the greater absorption and determine the wavelength and absorption. If the curve is not straight use solutions with lower concentration. Finally check the concentration of an unknown solution.

To check the photometric repeatability use glass or metal filters with non-localized absorption, there are several consecutive measurements and calculate standard deviation s:

where

s2: the dispersion of experimental values

N: the number of experimental values

T: the experimental values of permeability, the average experimental values of permeability

The photometric accuracy is measured as the photometric repeatability. Made ten consecutive measurements with standard samples which have been calibrated to laboratory standards, and calculated the accuracy as the difference between the average of the measurements and the actual value of permeability given by the standard laboratory

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